​After Years of Struggle, South Sudan Becomes a New Nation

By JEFFREY GETTLEMANJULY 9, 2011


Photo
President Salva Kiir gathered with leaders from around the world to celebrate South Sudan’s independence.CreditTyler Hicks/The New York Times

JUBA, South Sudan — The celebrations erupted at midnight. Thousands of revelers poured into Juba’s steamy streets in the predawn hours on Saturday, hoisting enormous flags, singing, dancing and leaping on the back of cars.

“Freedom!” they screamed.

A new nation was being born in what used to be a forlorn, war-racked patch of Africa, and to many it seemed nothing short of miraculous. After more than five decades of an underdog, guerrilla struggle and two million lives lost, the Republic of South Sudan, Africa’s 54th state, was about to declare its independence in front of a who’s who of Africa, including the president of the country letting it go: Omar Hassan al-Bashir of Sudan, a war-crimes suspect.

  • Mahzel (Means Good Luck)3:14

​Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?[edit]

The pamphlet started with this famous sentence:[11]

At this solemn hour in the history of India, when British and Indian statesmen are laying the foundations of a Federal Constitution for that land, we address this appeal to you, in the name of our common heritage, on behalf of our thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN—by which we mean the five Northern units of India, Viz: Punjab, North-West Frontier Province (Afghan Province), Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan.

The pamphlet asked that "the five Northern units of India"—Punjab, North-West Frontier Province (Afghan Province), Kashmir, Sindh and Baluchistan (or Pakstan)[12] become a state independent of the proposed Indian Federation.

Professor K.K.Aziz writes[13] that "Rahmat Ali alone drafted this declaration.[14] The word Pakstan was used for the first time in this pamphlet. To make it "representative", he looked for people who would sign it along with him. This difficult search among the firm grip of 'Indianism' on the young intellectual at English universities took him more than a month to find three young men in London who offered to support and sign it."[15] Chaudhry also suggested the establishment of two other muslims states within Britsh India; Bangalistan and Osmanistan. He suggested the former muslim province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in East India become an independeny muslim state for bengali, assamese and bihari speaking muslims while suggesting the princely state of Hyderabad become an islamic monarchy called Osmanistan.[16]

After the publication of the pamphlet, the Hindu Press vehemently criticized it, and the word 'Pakstan' used in it.[17] Thus this word became a heated topic of debate. With the addition of an "i" to improve the pronunciation, the name of Pakistan grew in popularity and led to the commencement of the Pakistan Movement, and consequently the creation of Pakistan as an independent state in 1947.[

​Creation of Israel, 1948

On May 14, 1948, David Ben-Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel. U.S. President Harry S. Truman recognized the new nation on the same day.

PYRAMID OF TRUTH

​Precedents for establishing new nationsType your paragraph here.